Accounting Principles; For searching the goals of the accounting profession and for expanding knowledge in this field, A logical and useful set of principles and procedures are to develop. Explained each one point, Accounting Principles points in Meaning Definition and Features. We know that while driving our vehicles, follow standard traffic rules.
Accounting Principles Understand in these points Meaning, Definition, and Features.
Without adhering traffic rules, there would be much chaos on the road. Similarly, some principles apply to the account. Thus, the accounting profession cannot reach its goals in the absence of a set of rule to guide the efforts of accountants and auditors. The rules and principles of accounting are commonly referring to as the conceptual framework of accounting.
Meaning of Accounting Principles:
They are a man make. Unlike the principles of Physics, Chemistry and other natural sciences; accounting principles were not deduced from basic axioms, nor their validity is verifiable through observations or experiments. These principles are drawn from the practical practice of accounting.
Definition of Accounting Principles:
They have been defining by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants as,
“The body of doctrines commonly associated with the theory and procedure of accounting serving as an explanation of current practices and as a guide for the selection of conventions or procedures where alternatives exist. Rules governing the formation of accounting axioms and the principles derived from them have arisen from common experience, historical precedent statements by individuals and professional bodies and regulations of Governmental agencies.”
According to Hendriksen (1997), Accounting theory may define as logical reasoning in the form of a set of broad principles that;
- Provide a general frame of reference by which accounting practice can evaluate, and.
- Guide the development of new practices and procedures.
The theory may also use to explain existing practices to obtain a better understanding of them. But the most important goal of accounting theory should be to provide a coherent set of logical principles that form the general frame of reference for the evaluation and development of sound accounting practices.
No list of universally accepted principles can prepare but still, certain principles are drawn which are acceptable by most of the accountants.
According to the Terminology Committee of AICPA,
“The word principles are used to mean a general law or rule adopted or preferred as a guide to action; a settled ground or basis of conduct or practice.”
A.W. Johnson describes as,
“Broadly speaking, these principles are the assumptions and rules of accounting, the methods, and procedures of accounting and the application of these rules, methods, and procedures to the actual practice of accounting.”
Definition and Explanation:
Accounting is the language of business through which economic information is communicating to all the parties concerned. In order to make this language easily understandable all over the world, it is necessary to frame or make certain uniform standards which are accepting universally. These standards are termed “Accounting Principles”.
They may define as those rules of action or conduct which are adopting by the accountants universally while recording accounting transactions. It is a body of doctrines commonly associated with the theory and procedures of accounting. They are serving as an explanation of current practices and as a guide for the selection of conventions or procedures where alternatives exist.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has advocated the use of the word” Principle” in the sense in which it means “rule of action”. It discusses the generally accepted accounting principles as follows: Financial statements are the product of a process in which a large volume of data about aspects of the economic activities of an enterprise are accumulating, analyze and report.
This process should carry out in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. These principles represent the most current consensus about how accounting information should record, what information should disclose, how it should disclose, and which financial statement should prepare. Thus, generally accepted principles and standards provide a common financial language to enable informed users to read and interpret financial statements. Thus, we may define Accounting Principles as those rules of action or conduct which are adopting by the accountants universally while recording accounting transactions.
Features of Accounting Principles:
They are man-made. It is acceptable because they are believing to be useful. The general acceptance of an accounting principle usually depends on how well it meets the following three basic norms:
- Objectiveness and.
A principle is useful to the extent that it results in meaningful or relevant information to those who need to know about a certain business. In other words, an accounting rule, which does not increase the utility of the records to its readers, is not acceptable as an accounting principle. A principle is objective to the extent. That the information is not influencing by the personal bias or Judgement of those who furnished it. Accounting principle says to be objective when it solidly supports by facts. Objectivity means reliability which also means that the accuracy of the information reported can verify.
Accounting principles should be such as are practicable. A principle is feasible when it can implement without undue difficulty or cost. Although these three features are generally finding in accounting principles. An optimum balance of three is struck in some cases for adopting a particular rule as an accounting principle. For example, the principle of making the provision for doubtful debts find on feasibility and usefulness though it is less objective. This is because of the fact that such provisions are not supporting by any outside evidence.
Essential Features of Accounting Principles:
They are acceptable if they satisfy the following norms:
Relevance or Usefulness:
A principle will be relevant only if it satisfies the needs of those who use it. The accounting principle should be able to provide useful information to its users otherwise it will not serve the purpose. Also, know this What do you think of Data Warehousing?
A principle will say to be objective if it bases on facts and figures. There should not be a scope for personal bias. If a principle can influence the personal bias and whims of users. It will not be an objective principle and its usefulness will limit. The cost principle will be more useful than the value principle. Because the value will base on market prices and personal judgment will differ in finding out value.
The accounting principles should be practicable. The principles should be easy to use otherwise their utility will limit. While showing fixed assets in the balance sheet, it will be more feasible to take cost less depreciation. If the assets are shown on market value or replacement cost basis. Then, it will involve difficulties and different persons will take different values because market prices go on changing every time.
The features mentioned above should be present in accounting principles. But in some cases, the optimum balance of these features is struck for adopting. A particular rule as the accounting principle. Sometimes one feature may have to sacrifice for the other so that it may adopt as the principle. Explains, Define Entrepreneurial Marketing and SME.
We may show fixed assets at replacement cost. Because it is practicable and actual cost principle may not be able to give correct results. As the rise in price index will make it less useful. Similarly, the principle of making provision for doubtful debts founds on the feasibility and usefulness basis though it is less objective. Such provisions are not supporting by any outside evidence and there is always a fear of personal bias.