Do you thought are these true? Management is the art of Working through People. Management defines by According to Harold Koontz, “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.” As well as management also defines by According to Henri Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.” So, what we discussing is – Important Characteristics of Management is the art of Working through People.
It is here that, Important Characteristics of Management:
Some of the most important characteristics of management are as follows:
- As Art and Science.
- As a Profession.
- As System of Authority.
- As Dynamic Function.
- As Process – with Social and Integrative.
- As Universal in Character.
- As of Factor of Production.
- In Goal-Oriented.
- As in Group Activity.
- As in Group Effort.
- As in Pre-determined Objectives.
- As Discipline.
- As Levels, and.
- Also, as Distinct Activity.
Now, Explain each one;
#An Art as well as a Science:
Management is a science because it has developed certain principles which are of universal application. But the results of management depend upon the personal skill of managers and in this sense management is an art. The art of the manager is essential to make the best use of management science. Management is both a science and an art.
It has elements of art and has characteristics of science. It is considered to be science as it has developed certain principles, laws, generalizations which are more or less universal in nature and are applicable wherever the efforts of a group are to be coordinated. It is regarded as art because managing requires certain skills which are the personal possession of the managers.
Thus, management is both science and art. It should, however, be noted that the science of management is not as exact as the physical science. It is still in the evolutionary stage, may be called as an inexact science or social science.
In the present days, management is recognized as a profession. It has a systematic and specialized body of knowledge consisting of principles, a technique, and laws and can be taught as a separate discipline or subject. Management is now recognized as a profession as it possesses all the attributes of the profession.
It has a specialized body of knowledge, principles, and techniques and that can be taught and transferred. It follows a scientific approach, involves special skills and tools and adheres to a code of ethics. This has also divorced ownership from management. Now with the advent of large-scale business, the management is entrusted in the hands of professional managers.
#A System of Authority:
Since management is a process of directing men to perform a task, authority to accomplish the work from others is implied in the very concept of management. Authority is the power to get the work done from others and to compel them to work in a certain manner. Management cannot perform in the absence of authority. Decision-making and organizing functions cannot be performed unless management is considered as a system of authority which implies a hierarchy of command and control.
Since management is a process of directing men, to perform a task, authority to accomplish the work from others is implied in the very concept of management. In every enterprise, there are built-up levels of authority to decide, direct and control the business operations. Authority is considered to be the basis of performance of managerial functions. Authority pre-supposes a right to give orders and power to get them executed.
In a very real sense, management is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body, and within itself, it is bound together by a web of relationship between superiors and subordinates. In the real sense, management is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body. There is a chain of authority and responsibility among people working at different levels of the organization. There cannot be effective management without well-defined lines of command or superior-subordinate relationships at the various levels of decision-making.
#A Dynamic Function:
Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It is constantly engaged in the molding of the enterprise in an ever-changing business environment. It is concerned not only with the molding of the enterprise but also the alteration of the environment itself so as to ensure the success of the enterprise. In a real sense, it is a never-ending function.
As process management involves those techniques by which the managers coordinate the activities of other people. Stanley Vance has stated five basic ingredients in the management process:
- The decision on the course of action.
- Obtaining the necessary physical means.
- Enlisting others to assist in the performance of the requisite task.
- Seeing that the job is properly accomplished, and.
- Apportioning the product of the joint venture.
In studying management as a process, various managerial activities are taken as a basis for defining management. Management is the planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling the activities of people working in a group in order to achieve the objectives of the group.
#A Social Process:
Management consists of getting things done through others. This involves dealing with people. The efforts of human beings have to be directed, coordinated and regulated by management in order to achieve the desired results. Management is a social process because management functions are basically concerned with relations among the people. It is called a social process since the efforts of human beings have to be directed, coordinated and regulated by management.
Moreover, management has a social obligation to make optimum utilization of scarce resources for the benefit of the community at large. The human factor is inseparable from management. According to Brech “It is the pervasiveness of this human element that gives management its special character as a social process.” It is in this sense that management is regarded as a social process.
Management has a social obligation to make optimum use of scarce resources for the benefit of the community as a whole.
In the words of Brech,
“Management is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economic planning and the regulation of the operation of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task.”
#An Integrative Process:
The essence of management is the integration of human and other resources in such a manner that it leads to effective performance. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience, and principles for getting the results. In other words, it seeks to harmonize individual goals with organizational goals.
#The Universal in Character:
Management is applicable to all types of organizations. Wherever there is human activity, there is management. The basic principles of management are of universal application and can be applied in all organizations whether they are business, social, religious, cultural, sports, educational, politics or military.
As Socrates has put it,
“Over whatever a man may preside, he will be a good president if he knows what he needs and is able to provide it whether he has the direction of a chorus, a family, a city or an army.”
In the words of Henry Fayol.
“Be it a case of commerce, politics religion, war…. in every concern there is management function to be performed.”
Perhaps there is the no more important area of human activity than managing which is of universal application. Fayol was the man who contributed fourteen principles of management which apply more or less in every situation.
“Be it a case of Commerce, Politics, Religion, and War in every concern there is a management function to be performed.”
Thus, management is universal in character.
#A Factor of Production:
Management is not an end in itself but a means to achieve the group objectives. Just as land, labor, and capital are factors of production and are essential for the production of goods and services, management is a factor of production that is required to coordinate the other factors of production for the accomplishment of pre-determined goals.
Management aims to achieve economic and social objectives. It exists to achieve some definite goals or objectives. Group efforts in management are always directed toward the achievement of some pre-determined goals. It is concerned with the establishment and accomplishment of these objectives.
To quote Theo Haimann,
“Effective management is always management by objectives.”
Haynes and Massie are of the opinion that without objectives management would be difficult, if not impossible.
Management is an essential part of a group activity. As no individual can satisfy all his desires himself, he unites with his fellow-beings and works in an organized group to achieve what he cannot achieve individually. Wherever there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management becomes essential. Management makes the people realize the objective of the group and directs their efforts towards the achievement of these objectives. Massie has rightly called management as “The cooperative group”.
Management always refers to group efforts and does not apply to an individual. Apply calls it “efforts of other people,” Massie says it “co-operative group.” Management is used in reference to the efforts of the group because the goals and objectives of an enterprise can be easily and effectively attained by a group rather than an individual.
Group efforts in management are always directed toward the achievement of some pre-determined objectives. These objectives are the final goals of an enterprise towards which all management activities have to be oriented.
According to Theo Haimann:
“Effective management is always management by objectives.”
In the words of Terry,
“Effective management is extremely difficult to attain without definite objectives.”
Hynes and Massie state,
“Management must be set objectives. Without objectives, management would be difficult, if not possible.”
Management today has its organized body of knowledge, principles, and techniques. It is taught in colleges and universities like other disciplines such as Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Political science, etc. Thus, the term management is also used to describe as a field of learning. Management is fast developing as a discipline and its scope and status are bound to increase in the times to come.
#Needed at all levels:
An important feature of management is that it applies to all levels of an organization. The lowest level supervisor has also to perform the function of decision-making just like the top-level executives. The only difference is of the nature of the task and scope of authority.
A manager is expected to be a generalist and not a specialist. Thus, the entity of the management is quite distinct from its various functional activities.
“Management is a separate and distinct entity. It is quite different from the various functional activities and the techniques and procedures which are generally considered as belonging to the field of management.”
The chief function of the manager is not “to do” but to get things done through others. For performing his functions effectively a manager requires knowledge, skill, and practice. It is necessary to make a distinction between managerial skill and skill required for specialized jobs. Specialized knowledge and technical skill are essential for the successful solution of any problem but basically, such knowledge is not considered necessary for efficient management.