Mortgage Contract Essay; A mortgage is a contract between two parties whereby the mortgagor uses his land as a guarantee for a loan from the mortgagee. In return for the creation of a proprietary claim in the land for the mortgagee; the mortgagor receives a loan and based on the terms of the mortgage has to pay the full sum owed.

Here is the article to explain, Meaning and Definition of Mortgage Contract!

If the mortgagor defaults on payment, the mortgagee exists entitled to take possession of the mortgaged property and recover; the full sum owed by the mortgagor usually through the sale of the property and by using the covenant to pay the full sum due. Jack and Margaret entered into a mortgage contract with Reading Bank whereby; their matrimonial home existed used as security for the loan. As Jack has fallen into arrears about the mortgage payments, Reading Bank is now seeking to recover the full sum due under the mortgage.

Mortgagee’s Rights;

The mortgagor essentially has the cumulative rights to sue the mortgagor on the covenant to repay based on the mortgage contract, to take possession of the mortgaged property, to initiate and complete the sale of the mortgaged property, to exercise foreclosure, and to appoint a receiver. In this task, we are only concerned with the mortgagor’s right to possession as Margaret and Jack are resisting possession.

By how legal mortgages exist created, the mortgagee regarded as having an estate in land; and this along with the authority of Four Maids v. Dudley Marshall and Ropaigelach v Barclays Bank gives Reading Bank the immediate right to possession; “the moment the ink is dry on the mortgage”. The right to take possession is subject only to self-limitation as expressed in contract and statutory restrictions. Mortgage documents generally contain a covenant that would restrict the mortgagee from taking possession unless the mortgagor is in arrears; it appears that an argument for self-limitation covenants would fail.

About statutory restrictions on the right of possession of a mortgagor; protection for the mortgagor exists afforded by section 36 of the Administration of Justice Act 1970 (AJA); as amended by Section 8 of the AJA 1973. By section 36 of the AJA, the court stands granted a discretionary power to suspend, adjourn or postpone an application for possession of a dwelling house by the mortgagee; if it appears that the mortgagor would be likely in a reasonable period to pay any sums due under the mortgage. Whether or not Margaret and Jack can resist possession by section 36 would depend on whether or not they satisfy the limitations of the effect of the statute.

More rights;

There is no dispute as to whether the mortgaged house in question is a dwelling house; however, the facts of the case seem to indicate that Reading bank did not apply for a court order; and, instead sought self-help as the bank merely wrote to Jack and Margaret. It should note that when seeking self-help possession Reading Bank runs the risk of committing criminal offenses; if there should be any person lawfully residing on the premises at the time; as they are subject to Section 6 (1) of the Criminal Law Act 1977; if violence existed used or had existed threatened to use.

However, the facts are silent, if Reading Bank did apply for a court order Margaret and Jack will be able to rely on section 36 of the AJA; and they would have to prove on the balance of probabilities that; it is likely that the arrears will clear within a reasonable period to satisfy the court. Application of section 36 is not necessarily a negative outcome as mortgagees do not want possession or the expense of a sale. “A possession order under section 36 gives the mortgagee all it could ask for; an order for possession, albeit suspended and an order requiring the borrower to repay the arrears and to stick to a schedule for future payments”. The discretion as to whether to apply for a court order or not exists left to Reading Bank.

Undue Influence;

As a mortgage is essentially a contract and the presence of any vitiating factors; such as undue influence or misrepresentation may make the entire agreement void and thus unenforceable. The court of appeal in Bank of Credit and Commerce International S.A. v. Aboody set out the categorization of cases undue influence into either class 1 of actual undue influence whereby one party to the transaction can prove on the facts that the other party to the transaction exerted undue influence through an act openly carried out amounting to improper pressure.

And class 2 of presumed undue influence arises when the complainant can establish the existence of a relationship of trust and confidence between her and the wrongdoer of such a nature that it is fair to presume that the wrongdoer abused the relationship in procuring her agreement to enter into the impugned transaction To resist possession Margaret would most likely attempt to argue that undue influence had existed exercised. The burden of proof for undue influence lies on the claimant throughout.

Margaret would have to prove undue influence, either actually or with the benefit of an evidential inference (a presumption); which remains un-rebutted. As class 1 cannot succeed the burden of proof would be on Margaret to rely on class 2 in that of the presumption of undue influence. Royal Bank of Scotland v Etridge (No.2) indicates that to discharge the burden of proof; the victim has to show that there was a relationship of trust and confidence with the alleged wrongdoer and that there exists a “transaction that calls for an explanation”.

Influence part 01;

Applying the requirements of Etridge (no.2) for class 2 presumed undue influence to the facts of the case; it would be necessary for Margaret to prove that there existed a close relationship of “habitual trust and confidence” between and Jack (the alleged wrongdoer) and herself. On the facts, it appears that Margaret “reposed trust and confidence” in Jack, the fact that for a great many years Margaret was a housewife raising five children seems to indicate that Jack would exist left alone to manage the financial decisions of the household as well as the company.

On the assumption that Jack was in fact in control of the financial decisions; it would appear that he would have a sufficient position of power to abuse his influence over Margaret as evidenced by his actions of persistently pressuring her into signing the mortgage despite her obvious reluctance to re-mortgage the house; which indicates a betrayal of trust by seeking to fulfill his interests. When considering the transaction that calls for the explanation it submitted that; it would stand left to the discretion of the courts, the judgment could go either way.

On one hand, it can exist argued the transaction is disadvantageous to Margaret; as she undertakes a serious financial obligation, and in return she receives nothing. On the other hand, it can exist argued that Jack’s business is the primary source of the family income; and Margaret would mutually benefit from having a lively interest in doing what she can to support the business. However, the facts point out that Margaret existed reluctant to agree to the transaction; and only did so at a point where she existed ‘physically exhausted’ and “sick of quarreling”.

Influence part 02;

Jack had also misrepresented Margaret about the actual sum that was to borrow; the amount stood represented as £300,000 whereas else it was in fact for £500,000. It submitted that in light of this the courts would most likely infer that there was an undue influence; as the transaction will only be explicable on the basis that; it has existed procured by the exercise of undue influence by Jack. If the courts infer that Margaret’s consent has existed procured by undue influence or misrepresentation; the bank may not rely on her apparent consent unless; it has good reason to believe that she understands the nature and effect of the transaction.

The burden of proof will be on the bank to rebut the presumption of undue influence. The Bank can rebut the presumption by producing an explanation for the impugned transaction. Lord Nicholls in Etridge (no.2) indicates that this can exist done; if Reading Bank can show that Margaret obtained independent advice from a solicitor or outside advisor. In this case, the facts are silent as to whether or not Margaret obtained any independent advice.

If Margaret has obtained independent advice; it would be in the court’s discretion as to whether or not the presumption can be rebutted. However, if Margaret did not obtain independent advice; it is submitted that the courts will most likely infer that undue influence had been exerted on Margaret by Jack tainting her consent about the impugned transaction. If the courts in their discretion infer that undue influence had existed exerted; then the onus of discharging the burden will place on Reading Bank.

Influence part 03;

The judgment of Lord Browne-Wilkinson in Barclays Bank v O’Brien appears to indicate; that the wife would only be able to set aside the transaction on the grounds of undue influence; if ‘the third party had actual notice of the facts giving rise to her equity’. The decision in Etridge (No.2) indicates that the courts will only deem the mortgagee to have notice of undue influence in every transaction where the surety and debtor are in a non-commercial relationship and the loan made was not for the mutual benefit of both parties but instead for the sole purpose of one.

Applying the principles to the facts of the case at hand, Margaret and Jack are in a domestic relationship and Margaret exists also listed as a director of the company. As aforementioned the courts will only be able to set aside the mortgage on the grounds of undue influence; if the Bank had actual notice of the facts giving rise to Margaret’s equity. The case of CIBC mortgages v Pitt illustrates a situation; whereby the bank stood misled by the mortgagor to believe that the loan was to purchase a holiday home; as it was for the mutual benefit of the couple the Bank was not put on inquiry.

Jack sought the mortgage to expand his business and as aforementioned an argument for manifest disadvantage could go either way. Reading bank may argue that as Margaret was a listed director of the company; they could apply CIBC v Pitt whereby the mortgagee was not put on notice; as it was for their mutual benefit.

Influence part 04;

However on the other side of the coin Lord Nicholls in Etridge (No.2) stated; “In my view, the bank is put on inquiry in such cases, even when the wife is a director or secretary of the company”. This suggests that the fact that Margaret is a listed director on her husbands’ company should not thwart Reading Bank from being put on inquiry. The argument for manifest disadvantage could go either way as Margaret has never played an active part in her husband’s business and instead was busy raising her five kids and subsequently working as a nurse.

There seems to be no way by which the bank can avoid existing put on notice to discharge; their obligations to prevent the transaction from becoming impugned. To avoid rendering the mortgage void due to undue influence, Reading Bank exists advised to meet with the vulnerable party privately; whereby the extent and risks involved in the mortgage should explain after; which the vulnerable party should instruct to seek independent legal advice to obtain a confirmation letter.

Influence part 05;

A confirmation letter from Margaret’s solicitors acts as proof that Reading Bank has fulfilled; its obligations and responsibilities in ensuring that the vulnerable party has obtained independent advice. Proceeding with the mortgage after a solicitors confirmation letter has existed obtained will make; the mortgage virtually unaffected by any future pleas for undue influence. The facts of the case are silent as to whether or not Reading Bank has carried out its responsibilities in that of meeting Margaret privately and instructing her to seek independent legal advice to obtain a confirmation letter.

If a confirmation letter had existed sought any plea for undue influence would ignore and the Reading Bank’s rights would unhindered. However, if Reading Bank had failed to discharge their responsibilities and the courts inferred that undue influence had been procured onto Margaret then Reading Bank would not be entitled to possession as the mortgage contract would only be exercisable upon Jack. This would result in Reading Bank having to seek other remedies to realize the loan such as suing on the covenant to pay.


It appears that a plea for undue influence would most likely succeed as Reading Bank has failed to discharge; its duties and obligations such as ordering a private meeting and advising Margaret to seek independent legal advice. However the facts are silent, If Reading Bank failed to discharge their duties; the mortgage contract agreement would be deemed unenforceable on Margaret; however, Reading Bank would still be able to sue Jack on the covenant to repay based on the mortgage contract.

If Reading Bank did discharge their duties and obligations; they would be able to set aside the presumption of undue influence. This would allow Reading Bank to exercise its rights under the mortgage such as the right to possession, right to sale, right to appoint a receiver, right to foreclosure, and right to sue on the covenant to repay. Regarding the right to possession Reading Bank would have the discretion as to whether to use apply for a court order or not as aforementioned the invocation of section 36 of the AJA is not necessarily a negative outcome, it all depends on what Reading bank wants.

What do the Means of Mortgage Contract Image
What do the Means of Mortgage Contract?

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