Operating Systems essay: The OS is that the program, which usually installed into the pc by a boot program. An OS is the heart of any computer without which it cannot useable and bear with. It provides all the resources to software, manages the hardware, and equipment all standard services for computer programs. It manages all other programs on the pc. Sometimes it is also called “OS”. These programs are also called applications. the appliance uses the OS by making requests for services through API (Application Program Interface). Sometimes users can directly use the OS through GUI (Graphical Users Interface) or query language. The OS may be a program that permits you to figure with hardware and software on your computer.

Operating Systems essay; Meaning, Definition, Types, Functions, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Basically, there are two ways to use the OS on your computer; the 2 ways are as follows: 1] for ex., DOS, you A text commands, and therefore the computer gives answer you consistent with your command. this often calls a command-line OS. 2] With a GUI (Graphical User Interface) OS (ex., windows). You relate with the pc through a graphical [Do you want to buy the best Graphics Card for your gaming computer? Gigabyte GeForce RTX 2070 SUPER WINDFORCE OC 3X Graphics Card] interface with pictures and buttons by using the mouse and keyboard.

An OS may be software that permits the pc hardware to speak and perform with computer software. Most desktops [Dell case study] or laptops come to preload or pre-installed with Microsoft windows os. Macintosh computers are loaded with Mac OS. Many computers or servers use the Linux or UNIX OS. The OS is that the very first thing loaded on the pc – without an OS (OS) the computer is useless and that we can’t do any functions thereon. Now at the instant, operating systems have begun to use OS in small computers also.

If we mess with electronic devices, we will see the OS in many of the devices, which we use a day, from mobile phones to wireless access points. the pc use in these little devices is more powerful and that they can easily run the operating systems and applications of it. the most aim of the OS is to arrange and control the hardware and software so that the device behaves flexibly.

All computers don’t have operating systems, for EX – the pc that controls the microwave in your kitchen doesn’t need an OS to figure because it’s just one set of jobs to try to; the foremost common window operating systems developed by Microsoft. There are many other operating systems available for special-purpose applications, including manufacturing, robotics, and mainframes, and so on.

Types of Operating Systems:

Within the family of the operating systems, there are four sorts of operating systems supported the kinds of computers. The categories are:

Real-time OS (RTOS):

A real-time OS wont to control machinery, scientific instruments, and industrial system. An RTOS hardly features a little user-interface capacity and no end-user utilities. a really important part of an RTOS is managing the property of the pc so that particular operations execute within the same amount of your time. during a complex machine, having a neighborhood move more quickly simply because system resources are available could also be even as catastrophic as having it’s going to not move in the least because the system is busy.

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Single-user, single task:

As the name implies, this OS means to manage the pc so that one user can do one thing at a time. The Palm OS for Palm handheld computers may be an exemplar of a contemporary single-user, single-task OS.

Single-user, multi-tasking:

This is a really popular OS; most of the people use this operating system on their desktop and laptop today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s Mac OS are both samples of single-user, multi-tasking OS. it’ll let one user have several programs operational at an equivalent time. for instance, it’s possible in Windows to write down a note in Microsoft word while downloading a file from the web while printing the text on the e-mail message.


A multi-user OS allows many users to require advantage of computer resources simultaneously. The OS makes sure that the wants of the varied users balanced, and every one of the programs they’re using has sufficient and separate resources so that the matter with one user doesn’t affect the community of the users. UNIX, VMS, and mainframe operating systems, like VMS, are samples of the os. It’s important to differentiate multi-user OS s and single-user operating system that supports networking. Windows 2000 can support hundreds or thousands of networked users.

Operating Systems Meaning Definition Types Functions Advantages Disadvantages Image
Operating Systems; Meaning, Definition, Types, Functions, Advantages, and Disadvantages; Image from Pixabay.

Functions of operating systems:

The OS plays an important role when it involves starting and shutting down the pc which additionally refers to as booting. Six steps happen when a computer is booting: the primary step begins as soon because the computer turns on, the electrical signal reaches to the components within the system unit through the facility supply. During the second step, the processor chip is reset thanks to the electrical signal then it locates the ROM that contains the essential input/output system (BIOS), which may be a firmware that contains the startup instructions of the pc.

Next, the BIOS launches a series of tests to make sure the hardware functioning and connect properly, referred to as the power-on self-test (POST), usually when the POST launches, the LED lights of the devices flicker, sometimes there’ll be messages displaying on the screen. The fourth step takes place when the POST compares the result with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip data. CMOS uses battery power to preserve the knowledge, data, and memory when the pc shuts down.

Besides that, it detects new devices and identifies them when these devices connect to the pc. The “beep” sound usually results when the CMOS detects which later follows by the error messages. The fifth step proceeds when the POST completes with none interference where the BIOS will locate the OS files also referred to as the system files from any source of drive. The sixth step occurs when the system file find, which then loaded into the RAM from its storage alongside the kernel of the OS.

Continuous part 1:

The system file then launches, and eventually, the OS which was stored in memory takes control of the entire computing system. During the ultimate step, the OS loads the knowledge set. a particular OS may request for user ID and password. After the OS is installed and loaded, it displays and presentation the desktop screen and it starts up the background procedure.

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The second function of the OS is by providing an interface. the 2 sorts of interface are the graphical interface (GUI) and therefore the command-line interface. The GUI basically provides users with a simple thanks to performing a command or task by having the menus with buttons or other pictures to permit users to click it with ease. rather than having simple buttons to click on, advanced users work with a command-line interface to configure, manage, and troubleshoot devices and other software. The command-line interface works only by keyboard with commands by using the available keyboard or touchscreen. To perform such command, one must type within the commands accurately with the precise spellings and punctuations.

OS also manages programs. It depends on certain OS, some OS can only run one program at a time, while some can run up to thousands of programs at an equivalent time with one or multiple users. There is the only user/single-tasking OS, single-user/multitasking OS, multiuser OS, and therefore the multiprocessing OS. When one multitasks, the program that’s actively employed by the user claim to be within the foreground, while the opposite programs know to be within the background.

Continuous part 2:

The OS’s fourth function is memory management. The OS does so by transferring the info and program instructions from the RAM to the hard disc once they aren’t needed at the instant because sometimes there’s only limited space for the RAM when it’s to perform other functions when an equivalent data and program instructions need again, the OS then transfer them from the hard disc to the RAM.

The fifth function of the OS is to adjust and coordinating tasks of useable hardware by software. Because the phrase implies, the OS determines the order of the tasks which process. Users can adjust or set the priority of certain tasks, which ends up from the opposite tasks to line up until the preceding task perform.

Every hardware features a driver that acts sort of a manual. The sixth function, during this case, allows the pc to spot and install it without having the pc to thoroughly “learn” all the small print of the hardware. With the Plug and Play technology today, the OS can automatically configure the new devices because the devices are installed on the pc.

Continuous part 3:

The OS is additionally vital by providing a uniform way for software to affect hardware without having the pc to thoroughly learn all the small print of the hardware. The OS interacts with the hardware via drivers. a simple example would be installing a printer on many computers.

The seventh function allows the user to simply hook up with the web rather than having to configure the tedious broadband service. OS can automatically configure the web connection.

The OS also function as a performance monitor, which during this case identify and reports information about the software or the devices of the pc.

Advantages or Benefits of operating systems:

There are different types of operating systems that transform over time. As each OS has its benefits and drawbacks, that’s the rationale new operating systems are developing. Now let’s check out the subsequent Benefits and advantages of an OS.

Computing Source:

An OS acts as an interface between the user and therefore the hardware. It allows users to input files, process it, and access the output. Besides, through the OS, users can communicate with computers to perform various functions like arithmetic calculations and other significant tasks.

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User-Friendly Interface:

Windows OS, when it came into existence, also introduces Graphical interface (GUI), which made using computers far more natural than earlier instruction Interface. Moreover, users can speedily and easily understand, interact, using, and communicate with computer machines.

Resource Sharing:

Operating systems allow the sharing of knowledge and useful information with other users via Printers, Modems, Players, and Fax Machines. Besides, one user can share equivalent data with multiple users at the corresponding time via mails. Also, various apps, images, and media files are often transferred from PC to other devices with the assistance of an OS.

No Coding Lines:

With the invention of GUI, OS allows access to hardware, without writing and reading programs. Unlike, earlier users don’t need to write code of lines to access the hardware functionality of a computing system.

Safeguard of Data:

There are tons of user data stored on the pc, which can only access with the assistance of an OS. Besides, storing and accessing the info, another important task of an OS is to securely and securely manage the info. for instance, Windows Defender in Microsoft Windows detects malicious and harmful files and removes them. Also, it secures your data by storing them with a touch to bit encryption.

Software Update:

An OS may be software that must update regularly to regulate high fleeting features that are continually increasing. With other apps and software hitting updates to enhance their functionality, OS must improve their benchmarks and handle all the working of a computer. An OS can easily update with none complexity.


An OS can handle several tasks simultaneously. It allows users to hold out different tasks at an equivalent point in time.

Disadvantages or Limitations of operating systems:

Now let’s check out the subsequent Limitations or disadvantages of an OS.


When we compared to the open-source platforms like Linux, Ubuntu, macOS, etc. some operating systems are costly. While users can use a free OS but generally they’re a touch difficult to run than others. Moreover, operating systems like Microsoft Windows with GUI functionality and other in-built features carry a costly tag.

System Failure:

If the central OS fails, it’ll affect the entire system, and therefore the computer won’t work. Moreover, an OS is the heart of a computing system without which it cannot function. If the central system crashes, the entire communication is going to halt, and there’ll be no further processing of knowledge.

Highly Complex:

Operating systems are highly complex, and therefore the language wont to establish these OS aren’t clear and well defined. Besides, if there’s a problem with OS users cannot directly understand, and it can’t be resolved quickly.

Virus Threats:

Threats to the operating systems are higher as they’re hospitable such virus attacks. Many users download malicious software packages on their system which halts the functioning of OS and slows it down.


Fragmentation within the computer may be a state when storage memory breaks into pieces. Internal fragmentation occurs when the tactic of the process is larger than the memory size. External fragmentation occurs when the tactic or process eliminates.

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