Explaining, Definition, Importance, and Affected Factors of Manpower Planning!
According to Gorden MacBeath, manpower planning involves two stages.The first stage is concerned with the detailed “Planning of manpower requirements for all types and levels of employees throughout the period of the plan”, and the second stage is concerned with “Planning of manpower supplies to provide the organization with the right types of people from all sources to meet the planned requirements”. Also learn, What is the Process of Manpower Planning? Definition, Importance, and Affected Factors of Manpower Planning!
According to Vetter, the process by which management determines how the organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning, management strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long-run benefit.
Stainer defines manpower planning as “Strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower”.
According to Wickstrom, human resource planning consists of a series of activities, viz:
- Forecasting future manpower requirements, either in terms of mathematical projections of trends in the economic environment and development in industry, or in terms of judgmental estimates based upon the specific future plans of a company;
Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources are employed optimally;
Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively; and
Planning the necessary programmes of requirement, selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation, and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met.
According to Geisler, manpower planning is the process—including forecasting, developing and controlling—by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically most useful.
Importance of Manpower Planning!
1. Key to managerial functions: The four managerial functions, i.e., planning, organizing, directing and controlling are based on the manpower. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. Therefore, staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions.
2. Efficient utilization: Efficient management of personnel becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today. The setting of large-scale enterprises requires management of large-scale manpower. It can be effectively done through staffing function.
3. Motivation: Staffing function not only includes putting right men on the right job, but it also comprises of motivational programmes, i.e., incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. Therefore, all types of incentive plans become an integral part of staffing function.
4. Better human relations: A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop and are strong. Human relations become strong trough effective control, clear communication, effective supervision and leadership in a concern. Staffing function also looks after training and development of the workforce which leads to co-operation and better human relations.
5. Higher productivity: Productivity level increases when resources are utilizing in best possible manner. higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time, money, efforts and energies. This is possible through the staffing and its related activities ( Performance appraisal, training, and development, remuneration).
Factors Affecting Manpower Planning!
Manpower planning exercise is not an easy tube because it is imposing by various factors such as:
- It suffers from inaccuracy because it is very difficult to forecast long-range requirements of personnel.
Manpower planning depends basically on organization planning. Overall planning is itself is a difficult task because of changes in economic conditions, which make long-term manpower planning difficult.
It is difficult to forecast about the personnel with the organization at a future date. While vacancies caused by retirements can predict accurately other factors like resignation, deaths are difficult to forecast.
Lack of top management support also frustrates those in charge of manpower planning because, in the absence of top management support, the system does not work properly.
The problem of forecast becomes more occur in the context of key personnel because their replacement cannot arrange the short period of time.
Moreover, any system requires the support of top management and manpower planning is no exception to this.