Learn and Understand, Explain the Methods of Job Analysis, with Process!
If you want to study first the Purpose of Job Analysis! So study for better understand. Then learn the Methods of Job Analysis! Now, Though there are several methods of collecting job analysis information yet choosing the one or a combination of more than one method depends upon the needs and requirements of an organization and the objectives of the job analysis process. Typically, all the methods focus on collecting the basic job-related information but when used in combination may bring out the hidden or overlooked information and prove to be great tools for creating a perfect job-candidate fit. Also learn, Meaning and Definition, Explain the Methods of Job Analysis, with Process!
Selecting an appropriate job analysis method depends on the structure of the organization, hierarchical levels, nature of job and responsibilities and duties involved in it. So, before executing any method, all advantages and disadvantages should be analyzed because the data collected through this process serves a great deal and helps organizations cope with current market trends, organizational changes, high attrition rate and many other day-to-day problems.
Let’s discuss few of job analysis methods that are commonly used by the organizations to investigate the demands of a specific job.
Methods of Job Analysis:
Most Common Methods of Job Analysis
A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and unfulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. Why? Let’s Discover.
It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biases or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process.
#This particular method includes three techniques: Direct observation, Work Methods Analysis, and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of the behavior of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviors that result in performance.
In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers.
This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by the employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.
Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors, and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be taken while framing questions for different grades of employees.
In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it won’t be used against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources.
These are some of the most common methods of job analysis. However, there are several other specialized methods including task inventory, job element method, competency profiling, technical conference, threshold traits analysis system and a combination of these methods. While choosing a method, HR managers need to consider time, cost and human efforts included in conducting the process.
Process Methods of Job Analysis:
Job analysis data is collected in several ways with only the specification of the person who is going to carry out the job analysis. Often workers from the HR department participate in job evaluations; also depending on the different methods of job analysis even the managers, bosses, and employees participate. During complicated job analysis, the industrial engineers handle the time and motion studies.
Another facet of job analysis is the contemplation of the technique used; some techniques of job analysis or methods are observations, interviews, questionnaires and other specific analysis methods. The applications of the techniques used in job analysis mostly depend on the type of organization, its fundamental requirements, and circumstances.
The various methods of Job Analysis are:
In the job analysis method of observation, the performance of the worker is monitored by a manager, supervisor or job analyst, industrial engineer; the performance is recorded to see whether the tasks and duties are properly done. Job analysis observation may either be continuous or intermittent sampling but the observation is always of limited use since most jobs do not have the capability of doing the observation of the complete job cycles.
Hence observation is efficient in cyclic jobs and when used combined with other methods. The observation might be used by the supervisor or manager to be familiar with the job and its requirements. During other methods in job analysis, the observation method is immensely useful as it provides vital information about the job.
2. Work Sampling:
Work Sampling is a kind of observation; it does not need thorough concentration in all its minute aspects through the whole work cycle. As an alternative; the person doing the job analysis decides the matter and work pace on a specific workday according to the statistical sampling of various actions rather than by constant monitoring and detailed timing of each action. Work Sampling is most effective for regular monotonous jobs and cyclic repetitive jobs.
3. Employee Diary/Log:
In this method, the employee himself records his performance in a diary/log along with the frequency of the duty and the time needed to perform. This technique is useful in some ways but becomes tiresome for the employees to record all their duties and the timings. Even some employees believe that the employee diary/log method diverts them from their work and creates unnecessary distractions.
In the interview technique of collecting data, the manager or the overseer monitors every job place and the worker performing it. Then a model question or interview form is made to ask the workers and note the answers and to get the proper analysis and complete comprehension of the job and its requirements; one has to talk and interview both the employee and the supervisor.
This method is exhaustive when the interviewer has to converse with two or more employees in one job. Often the professional and managerial jobs are very difficult and complex to analyze; hence require complex longer interviews. Thus the interviewing method should be combined with any other method for proper assessment.
Questionnaires method is the most popular technique for collecting information in job analysis and a survey device is created and distributed amongst the employees and managers to read and answer. The merits of this method are that bulk information can be collected from the employees without much effort; that also in a short span of time.
But the problems of job analysis is that it assumes the employee to answer the questions truthfully without any bias but that in reality is quite impossible; as opinions on their work and other things will always be influenced by their personal beliefs. Due to this problem, the job analysis questionnaire is mostly combined with the interviews and observations.
6. Critical incident method:
This method consists of observation and documentation of other instances and whether the behaviors were effective or futile to produce the desired results. The critical incident method of behavior includes; the reason of the incident and the circumstance, the work was done by the employee and how it was futile or useful, the assumed outcome of the behavior and also an analysis on the influence the behavior of an employee have on the outcome.
This method vastly differs from the other job evaluation, methods of conducting job analysis as only here the employee behavior is not recorded when it is performed but later when the behavior has been evaluated to be futile or useful depending on the results.
Here the behavior is described in retrospect and it is acknowledged that recording of past actions is more difficult and complicated than of present actions when the performance is continued.