Learn, Explain the Techniques of Directing with Good Characteristics!


The direction is called management in action. Definition of directing, In the words of Theo Haimann, “In order to make any managerial decision really meaningful, it is necessary to convert it into effective action, which the manager accomplishes by directing. Without this managerial function nothing or at best very little is likely to come about. Also learn, Definition, now, Explain the Techniques of Directing with Good Characteristics!

Planning, organizing, and staffing can be considered preparatory managerial functions the purpose of control are to find out whether or not the goals are being achieved. The connecting and actuating link between these functions is the managerial function of directing, which means the issuance of directives and the guidance and overseeing of subordinates.” Related questions: What is the Importance of Directing Functions?

Good Characteristics of Directing:

A good order has the following characteristics:

1) The order should be clear and easily understood.

2) The order should be complete in all respects. It should not create doubts in the minds of subordinates.

3) It should be compatible with the objectives of the organization.

4) There should be specific instructions as to the time by which the order should be executed or completed.

5) The order should be so conveyed that it stimulates ready acceptance.

6) The order should preferably be in writing.

7) The order should be conveyed through the proper chain of command and it should also contain the reasons for issuing it.

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Techniques of Directing:

Directing is an important function carried out by top management. It is the order or instruction to subordinate staff to perform a work or not to perform in a specific way. The techniques of directing are delegation, supervision, orders, and instructions.

(1) Delegation:

Delegation is an important mean of directing. The subordinates are assigned tasks and given powers to recruit them. In delegation, a superior assigns some of his work to the subordinates and gives them rights or powers. The subordinates are authorized to undertake the assigned work. Delegation is a means of sharing authority with the subordinates and providing them with an opportunity to learn. Delegation as a means of directing may bring out some problems.

  • It may be difficult to spell out exact tasks and assignments of the subordinates. There may be some overlapping and uncertainties in job descriptions. The subordinates should learn to adjust them in such situations.
  • There may be some contradiction in the assignment of task and delegation of authority.
  • The subordinates may sometimes act beyond the assigned authority taking it as implied by the superiors. The superiors will have to bear with such situations.
  • An indiscriminate delegation may create an imbalance in the organization since every subordinate may not have the same capacity and maturity.
  • If the delegation of authority is too rigid then it kills initiative and creativity.

(2) Supervision:

Supervision is a means to oversee the work performed by subordinates. It should be ensured that work is performed as per the plans and guidelines. Every superior has to supervise the work of his subordinates. At operative level supervision is the job of a manager. A supervisor at the lower level remains in touch with the workers. He guides them for doing the work, maintains discipline and work standards and solves the grievances of workers. Supervision at different levels acts as a directing activity.

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(3) Issuing Orders and Instructions:

The issuing of orders and instructions is essential to undertake the work for achieving the organizational goals. No manager can get a work done without issuing orders and instructions to subordinates. An order, instruction, directing or command is a means of initiating, modifying or stopping an activity. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel has a directional technique, an instruction is understood to be a charge (command) by a superior requiring a subordinate to act or refrain from acting in a given circumstance.

According to this definition, an instruction is always given by a superior to a subordinate directing to undertake a work in a specified manner or prohibit him from some activity. The orders and instructions are the primary tools of directing by means of which the activities are started, altered, guided and terminated. While issuing an order a manager should be clear in his mind what he wants the subordinates to do or not to do. The clarity of orders will determine the level of performance of subordinates.


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