Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that connects the digital and material planets to make a virtual experience. Operating an instrument camera, digital content such as graphics, sound, and video, stands displayed on-screen to deliver augmented experiences. Unlike virtual reality, augmented reality isn’t a fully immersive, synthetic experience. Instead, it’s comprised of virtual elements placed in your direct surroundings. Apps for mobile or desktop that use augmented reality technology to mix digital features into the real environment.

Here is the article to explain, Augmented Reality (AR) Meaning Definition Characteristics Types Essay!

Augment Reality is the full name of the technology. For instance, AR technology can use to overlay score overlays on televised sports plays and to pop out 3D pictures, texts, and emails.

What do you understand about Augmented Reality? Meaning and Definition;

Augmented reality is a computer system that can combine the real world and computer-generated data. With this system, virtual objects stand blended into real footage in real-time. Thus, we can imagine the high potential that this technology might have if applied in the field of education. In augmented reality, the computer works as a mirror. With a camera and a black and white printed marker, we transmit to the computer the angle and coordinates about an object.

Thus real elements stand mixed with virtual elements in real-time, and in the same way, as in a mirror, the image appears inverted on the screen; which makes orientation a very complicated task. Virtual models can exist animated and multiplied. With this technology, we can create and combine animated sequences to control a virtual object and share the interaction with others.

In the field of education, we can use this technology to create interactive 3-D books that respond to changes in the angle of observation. From the beginning, the advertising companies were the first to use this system using interactive web-based augmented reality applications. Because of its potential, augmented reality will exist widely applied in fields; such as architecture, surgery, simulations, geology, and ecology among others.

How does Augmented Reality (AR) work?

The basic process of creation in augmented reality is to create virtual models that will exist stored in a database. After this, the model will stand retrieved from the mentioned database, rendered, and registered into the scene. Sometimes, this process implies serious difficulties in many area applications. The virtual content must exist stored on the database and also published as printed material, containing an index to our database. This communication to the database increases the complexity of the virtual model as final work.

To avoid these difficulties is necessary to fully encode our virtual content in a bar code; which is not understandable to a human without using a specific augmented reality system. When captured by an AR system, the virtual models exist then extracted from the incoming image.

Embedding —> Acquisition —> Extraction —> Registration —> Rendering

The virtual model stands created and printed. This printed representation exists then acquired by the augmented reality device. After, the virtual models exist extracted from the acquired image. Finally, the virtual models stand registered onto the scene and rendered.

Besides adding virtual objects into the real world, AR must be able to remove them. Desirable systems would be those that incorporate sound to broaden the augmented experience. These systems should integrate headsets equipped with microphones to capture incoming sound from the environment; thus having the ability to hide real environmental sounds by generating a masking signal.

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Features or Characteristics of Augmented Reality (AR);

The following Augmented Reality Features or Characteristics below are;

Haptic Technology;

The main goal of AR is the interactivity between the user and virtual objects. HT is the system that allows the user to have tactile experiences within immersive environments. With this system, the user interacts with the virtual environment through an augmented system. To bring realism to these interactions, the system must allow the user to feel the touch of surfaces, textures, and the weight and size of virtual objects.

With haptic devices, mass can exist assigned to virtual elements so that the weight and other qualities of the object can exist felt in the fingers. This system requires complex computing devices endowed with great power. Furthermore, the system must recognize the three-dimensional location of fiducial points in the real scene.

Position-Based Augmented Reality;

For correct compensation between the virtual and real image, the system must represent both images in the same frame of reference by using sensitive calibration and measurement systems to determine the different coordinate frames in the AR system. This system measures the position and orientation of the camera concerning the coordinate system of the real world. These two parameters determine the world-to-camera transform, C. We can quantify the parameters of camera-to-image, P, by calibrating the video camera. Finally, the third parameter, O, stands computed by measuring the position and orientation of the virtual object in the real world, existing rendered and combined with the live video.

Computer Vision for Augmented Reality;

Augmented Reality uses computer vision methods to improve performance. Thus, the system eliminates calibration errors by processing the live video data. Other systems invert the camera projection to obtain an approximation of the viewer pose. Recently, a mixed-method uses fiducial tracking; which stands combined with a magnetic position tracking system that determines the parameters of the cameras in the scene. Currently, the problems of camera calibration exist solved by registering the virtual objects over the live video.

Animation;

If we want an AR system to be credible, it must have the ability to animate the virtual elements within the scene. Thus, we can distinguish between objects moving by themselves and those whose movements exist produced by the user. These interactions exist represented in the object-to-world transform by multiplication with a translation matrix.

Portability;

Since the user can walk through large spaces, Augmented Reality should pay special attention to the portability of its systems, far from controlled environments, allowing users to walk outdoor with comfort. This stands accomplished by making the scene generator, the head-mounted display, and the tracking system capable of being autonomous.

Types and Categories of Augmented Reality;

There are several types of augmented reality in use today. From marketing to gaming, there are a lot of businesses in the exploration phase of utilizing this emerging technology. The question is… how? Easier asked than answered. To get a better understanding of how you can use AR, let’s walk through the different types and see examples of each.

Marker-based;

Marker-based AR uses markers to trigger an augmented experience. The markers, often made with distinct patterns like QR codes or other unique designs, act as anchors for the technology. When a marker in the physical world exists recognized by an augmented reality application, the digital content stands placed on top of it. Marker-based augmented reality stands commonly used for marketing and retail purposes. Think business cards that speak and brochures that move.

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In this example, marker-based AR is existing used for retail purposes in someone’s home. Imagine if you could see what your new bathroom vanity would look like before you buy it. Plus, with this application, you can swipe through the various sink options to see what looks best in the space.

Markerless;

Marker-less AR is more versatile than marker-based AR as it allows the user to decide where to put the virtual object. You can try different styles and locations completely digitally, without having to move anything in your surroundings. Markerless augmented reality relies on the device’s hardware, including the camera, GPS, digital compass, and accelerometer, to gather the information necessary for the AR software to do its job.

In this example, the virtual car can stand positioned anywhere, regardless of the surrounding area. You can customize the Mustang itself, adjust and rotate the view, and learn additional product information. The following types of augmented reality technically fall under the umbrella of markerless AR in that they don’t need a physical marker to trigger the digital content.

Location-based;

Location-based AR ties digital content and the experience it creates to a specific place. The objects exist mapped out so that when a user’s location matches the predetermined spot it exists displayed on the screen. The game that brought augmented reality to the masses, Pokemon Go, is an example of location-based AR. The experience brings virtual Pokemon to our world through your smartphone and users exist encouraged to find as many of the characters as possible.

Superimposition;

Superimposition AR recognizes an object in the physical world and enhances it in some way to provide an alternate view. This can include recreating a portion of the object or the whole thing in its entirety. In this example, the chair stands copied, rotated, and placed in another location around the table. The user can do so many things with this technology, like decide if they want to have four chairs and a little elbow room or if they can comfortably seat six at the same table.

Projection-based;

Projection-based AR is a little different than the other types of markerless augmented reality. Namely, you don’t need a mobile device to display the content. Instead, light projects the digital graphics onto an object or surface to create an interactive experience for the user. Yes, that’s right, holograms! Projection-based AR stands used to create 3D objects that can interact with the user. It can exist used to show a prototype or mockup of a new product, even disassembling each part to better show its inner workings.

Outlining;

Outlining AR recognizes boundaries and lines to help in situations when the human eye can’t. Also, Outlining augmented reality uses object recognition to understand a user’s immediate surroundings. Think about driving in low light conditions or seeing the structure of a building from the outside. This example of outlining AR tells the driver exactly where the middle of the lane is to keep them out of harm’s way. Similar applications include parking your car and having the boundaries outlined so that you can see exactly where the parking space is.

What does Augmented Reality for Education?

The use of Augmented Reality in school promotes teamwork and allows viewing of three-dimensional models to students; which facilitates the task of learning through a fun and interactive process. Likewise, this system can exist applied to a wide variety of learning areas outside the educational field. Among the reasons that make AR attractive to exist applied in educational centers, we find, among others, the interaction between virtual and real environments; the easy manipulation of objects within the virtual environment, and the ease of movement from one space to another in real-time.

Through the use of HMDs, AR promotes team communication, showing the possible gestures and other communication signals from the students of the group. All this information view by students on their screens, which facilitates interpersonal communication. This allows this form of collaboration to exist seen more like face-to-face communication than isolated communication through displays on the HMD screen.

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In these collaborative environments, the information taken from the real world is socially shared in the virtual space. The advantage of using AR systems instead of other technologies is that results are highly intuitive for people; who have no experience with other computer systems. Thus, even the youngest students can enjoy a fun interactive experience.

Fantasy Interfaces;

Little children often fantasize about being actors in a fairy tale. With AR, we can make this fantasy a reality, by using a book with markers that acts as the primary interface. Thus, we can turn the pages, read the text, and we can see also three-dimensional animations that tell us the story better. These 3D models are embedded in the page of the book so the child can see the animations from any point of view, moving them from different angles. These animations can be adapted to any size of the book so that reading becomes a very fun and immersive experience.

These systems can be used at any educational level, making the learning process a very engaging task. To apply this system successfully, educators should collaborate with the developers of these applications to find the best way to apply it in school environments.

Future directions;

Future monitoring systems will be more robust and will incorporate mixed media to remedy the mistakes of registration. These systems will fully reproduce the scenes in real-time within the HMD. Moreover, future AR systems will offer users the ability to walk in great outdoor spaces.

To achieve this, these systems will have to evolve towards better portability. To a greater sense of immersion, these systems should also incorporate 3D sound systems. As for the political and social dimensions, through the gradual introduction of Augmented Reality in the daily tasks of our lives, it will be more accepted by people. Gradually, we will see that this system allows the users to make; their work easier and faster instead of being seen as a system that replaces human workers.

Conclusion;

Augmented Reality is less technologically-advanced than Virtual Reality Systems, but by contrast, AR is much more commercial. Nowadays, AR can exist found in research laboratories and academic centers. The next development of AR will be initially on aircraft manufacturing. On the other hand; its introduction to the medical field will take longer than in other areas. AR will probably be used in medical training before surgery.

Another area where AR will develop strongly in the coming years will be in tours through outdoor environments by wearing a Head-mounted display, facilitating the development of advanced navigation systems and visualizations of past and future environments. These systems will make the orientation a much easier task. AR systems will also include 3D maps displaying information about the elements we´re looking at; and, their dimensions and will show the easiest way to reach that destination.

Regarding the application of AR in education, the lesson will be better understood by visualizations of history, geography, anatomy, and sciences in general that will make the learning process much easier. After solving the basic problems of Augmented Reality, advanced virtual elements will be developed that will be perceived as realistic as the real world. To achieve this purpose, the conditions of lighting, texturing, shading, and registration will be almost perfect; so we will wear a pair of glasses outdoors that will show us realistic virtual elements with which we will interact normally.

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