In latest years, pc software Object Oriented Database program is the single and unconvertible most vital generation in the global. Software builders have constantly tried to increase new technologies because of the developing importance of computer software. These traits, a number of them focused on a generation domain i.E. Object-oriented database gadget/programming. Metrics are hard to collect and won’t degree the supposed first-rate measures of software.
Here is the article to explain, How to define the Features and Reusability of Object Oriented Database Programming?
As the name shows, Object-Oriented Programming or OOPs database refers to languages that use items in programming. Object-oriented programming ambitions to put into effect real-global entities like inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, and many others in programming. The major aim of OOP is to bind together the statistics and the functions that operate on them so that no different part of the code can get entry to this data except that function.
- Data Abstraction
- Dynamic Binding
- Message Passing
What does the meaning of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)?
The following mission honestly explains the descriptions of the features and characteristics of the features of object-oriented programming. There are twelve concepts of oop which might state under. Object-orientated programming is one of the most modern and maximum effective paradigms. Furthermore, the Object-Oriented database mentions the programming method based on the gadgets, in its vicinity of just strategies and features. These gadgets are deliberate into lessons, which might permit the man or woman gadgets to the group. Modern programming languages containing Java, PHP, and C or C++ exist as object-oriented languages The “object” in an Object-Oriented Programing language discusses an instance or particular type, of magnificence.
Every object has a structure related to other gadgets within the magnificence, but it can allocate man or woman capabilities. An item also can call a method or feature, specific to that item. Individual characters are can define as objects, in step with the item which permits them to have one-of-a-kind abilities, appearances, and skills. Also, Object-orientated database programming makes it simpler for programmers to design and organize software program packages. The critical features which might be assisting to design the item-oriented programming and layout given underneath:
- Development over the designed programming paradigm.
- Importance of data instead of algorithms.
- Also, the Procedural abstraction perfects through information abstraction.
- Data and associated techniques are unified, grouping items with no unusual attributes, operations, and semantics.
Empirical validation is a must to verify the usefulness of a metric in practical applications.
Software engineering started with a humble beginning and also it has slowly come into a lifestyle. Now, software engineering is an exceptional technique for software program troubles. Most programmers/developers view software engineering as an engineering technique to grow the software program.
“If you may not measure it’s not Engineering community” – is a not unusual quote by the engineering community. Measurement is the premise for all technology and engineering. Good measurements are necessary for a successful technique. Software dimension remains notably much less than most desirable in phrases of dimension techniques and the volume and also reliability of published information.
Software measurement plays an important role in finding the quality and reliability of software products. The measurement activities require appropriate tools to calculate relevant metric values. At present large number of metric tools are available for software measurement. Also, The main objective of this article is to find the reusability of interfaces in object-oriented programming.
MEASUREMENTS AND METRICS;
Measurement is the technology that allows the software professional to make visible progress in improving the software-related factors. Measurement is not only a performance factor that leads to behavioral changes but is used to improve the factors that are being measured. It is a clear note that measurement is necessary for the software development process to be successful.
Since 1976 traditional metrics have been used in software measures for measuring the software complexity. Nowadays, a large number of software metrics have been proposed to measure effort and quality. Also, Traditional metrics are important to measure non-object-oriented programs. Metrics are used as a controlling method in development and to measure either the process of development or various aspects of the product. Traditional metrics stand used to measure the complexity of the program and the comment percentage of the program.
Object-Oriented Programming and Metrics;
Object-oriented database software is a more recent and important quality software than the old-style procedural software/program. With the widespread object-oriented technology, the subject of software engineering has received much attention over the last two decades. Also, Object-oriented design and development are very important and popular concepts in today’s development environment. Object-oriented design and development require a different approach to design, implementation, and software metrics compared to a standard set of metrics.
Metrics are essential to measuring object-oriented software programming. The development of software metrics for object-oriented technology/programming has received more attention. A large number of metrics have existed developed by researchers and numerous tools are available to help assess design quality and to collect metrics from software programs, designs, quality, maintenance, etc.
Many object-oriented metrics proposed in the literature survey lack theoretical proof and some have not existed validated. Also, The metrics that evaluate the object-oriented programming concepts are methods, classes, coupling, and cohesion. Very few metrics exist presented for object-oriented interfaces. In this article, a measurement has existed proposed to calculate the reusability of interfaces in object-oriented programming.
The concept of an interface is old. Software engineering has been using interfaces for more than 25 years. Nowadays interfaces exist heavily used in all disciplines, especially in object-oriented programming. With interface construct, object-oriented programming features a good concept with high potential code reusability. Interfaces exist used to organize code and provide a solid boundary between the different levels of abstraction.
It is good to use interfaces in a large type of applications because interfaces make the software/program easier to extend, modify and integrate new features. An interface is a prototype for a class. With the construct of an interface, java allows a concept of high potential for producing reusable code.
Interfaces in object-oriented programming just contain names and signatures of methods and attributes, but no method implementations. Interfaces exist implemented by classes. The inheritance hierarchy of interfaces is independent of that of the class inheritance tree. Therefore object-oriented languages like java give a higher potential to produce reusable code than abstract classes.
Reusability is always an interesting topic with shining promise. Reusable code is an effective combination of two concepts.
- Properly defined interface definitions, and.
- Efficiently defined class structure and inheritance.
In this essay, the authors followed the first concept of reusability and measured the metric for interface reusability by giving a new formula. One benefit of defining an interface is that every class that implements an interface must be in line with the interface’s functional requirements. A large amount of code sharing occurs within each implementation class. Based on the class structure designed at the development time the implementation classes exist organized according to their interface group type and inheritance allowed to access common logic.
Reusability is an important factor for the software community people because it is the ability to reuse several software artifacts in terms of requirements, architecture, plans, cost estimates, designs, source code, data elements, interfaces, screens, user manuals, test plans, and test cases. Software reusability is an experimental one under the impact of new tools and programming languages. The measurement of software/programs and also the software development process is much needed for software professionals attempting to improve their software process. Reusability of software increases productivity and quality and reduces the cost. So in this essay, the reusability stands measured for object-oriented programming interfaces using the new formula.
BACKGROUND SUPPORT & PROPOSED APPROACH;
Measurement is not just a software activity. Furthermore, A good measurement process is an effective method for demonstrating new tools and process improvements. An accurate measurement is a prerequisite process for all engineering disciplines and software engineering is not an exceptional one for calculating accurate results. There is no significant work on the design of human-computer interfaces. In literature, relatively little information has been published on metrics. Those metrics would provide limited insight into the quality and usability of the interface.
So the proposed approach is to derive a formula for calculating the reusability of interfaces accurately. A deeper interface in the hierarchy leads to greater reusability of inherited methods. When the depth of inheritance (DIT) of an interface increases the reusability of an interface also increases. So DIT of an interface has a positive impact on the reusability of an interface. The reusability of interfaces is calculated in the following two ways:
- The reusability of interfaces is calculated by using the formula:
(RI) = Total No. of links to interfaces – No. of interfaces.
RI – Total Reusability of interface diagram.
- The reusability of interfaces in a diagram is calculated by using the formula:-
Total Reusability of a diagram:
RI = R (I1) + R (I2) +….R (In);
R- Reusability and I1…..In are Interfaces
In each diagram, the reusability of an interface is calculated by using the formula and all interface reusability must be added to find the total reusability of the interface diagram. Furthermore, In both ways i.e. according to formulas 1 and 2 the values are equal. This is shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.
To validate the formula empirically three object-oriented diagrams stand used to calculate the values for the reusability of an interface for each diagram. The figure shows an object-oriented design diagram that shapes interfaces. Furthermore, The table shows the values of reusability of each interface and the total reusability of interfaces using the above formula.
REUSABILITY OF INTERFACES FOR SHAPES
RI = Total Reusability of a diagram
L-I = Reusability of an interface
I=1 since reusability is calculated for each interface. No. of interfaces = 1.
In the above table, 1 RI is calculated by using the formula 1 and 2.
VALUES OF INTERFACE REUSABILITY
Many simplistic metrics do not capture the importance of whatever it is that it has to measure. Furthermore, many developers and software engineers are experiencing the benefits and uses of reusability in the completion of the project within the time and cost. Many other programmers and developers believe that software reuse will help in reducing costs and also provide other benefits to software development. Object-oriented programming software is more reusable than functionally decomposed software.
Software reuse increases the production and quality of software and also reduces software development costs and time. Reusability is an attribute of software quality. By measuring reusability we can measure software quality. The authors have proposed a new metric to measure the reusability of interfaces in object-oriented programming. As software is existing developed, it is very good and important to keep an eye on the various parameters. The authors used three UML object-oriented diagrams to validate the formula. Hence, this approach is an eye-opener to measuring the reusability of the interface diagram.