Learn and Study, Management as, What? As an Art…As a Process!


Before You Start Studying, let’s want to know, what you going to learn it. Management can be defined in detail in following categories: Management as an Art, as a Science, as a Process, as an Activity, as a Discipline, as a Group, and as a Profession. Is Management an as Profession? Also learned, the Subsidiary Functions of Management! Management as, What? As an Art…As a Process! Continuously Studying – Management as, What? Now, Learning next part of Management as, What? As an Activity…as a Profession!

First, define, Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations – business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose. According to Harold Koontz, “Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals and can co-operate towards the attainment of group goals”. According to F.W. Taylor, “Management is an art of knowing what to do when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.

Management is a purposive activity. It is something that directs group efforts towards the attainment of certain predetermined goals. It is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve the goals of the organization, by efficiently using limited resources in the changing world. Of course, these goals may vary from one enterprise to another. E.g.: For one enterprise it may be launching new products by conducting market surveys and for other, it may be profit maximization by minimizing cost.

Management involves creating an internal environment: – It is the management which puts to use the various factors of production. Therefore, it is the responsibility of management to create such conditions which are conducive to maximum efforts so that people are able to perform their task efficiently and effectively. It includes ensuring availability of raw materials, determination of wages and salaries, formulation of rules & regulations etc.

Management can be defined in detail in following categories :

  • Management as an Art!
  • Management as a Science!
  • Management as a Process!
  • Management as an Activity!
  • Management as a Discipline!
  • Management as a Group, and!
  • Management as a Profession!

Now Explain it:

#Management as an Art!

Art implies the application of knowledge & skill to trying about desired results. An art may be defined as the personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. Art has the following characters –

  • Practical Knowledge: Every art requires practical knowledge, therefore, learning of theory is not sufficient. It is very important to know practical application of theoretical principles. E.g. to become a good painter, the person may not only be knowing different color and brushes but different designs, dimensions, situations etc to use them appropriately. A manager can never be successful just by obtaining degree or diploma in management; he must have also know how to apply various principles in real situations by functioning in the capacity of manager.
  • Personal Skill: Although theoretical base may be same for every artist, each one has his own style and approach towards his job. That is why the level of success and quality of performance differs from one person to another. E.g. there are several qualified painters but M.F. Hussain is recognized for his style. Similarly, management as an art is also personalized. Every manager has his own way of managing things based on his knowledge, experience, and personality, that is why some managers are known as good managers (like Aditya Birla, Rahul Bajaj) whereas others as bad.
  • Creativity: Every artist has an element of creativity in line. That is why he aims at producing something that has never existed before which requires the combination of intelligence & imagination. Management is also creative in nature like any other art. It combines human and non-human resources in a useful way so as to achieve desired results. It tries to produce sweet music by combining chords in an efficient manner.
  • Perfection through practice: Practice makes a man perfect. Every artist becomes more and more proficient through constant practice. Similarly, managers learn through an art of trial and error initially but an application of management principles over the years makes them perfect for the job of managing.
  • Goal-Oriented: Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete results. In the same manner, management is also directed towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Managers use various resources like men, money, material, machinery & methods to promote the growth of an organization.
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Thus, we can say that management is an art, therefore, it requires an application of certain principles rather it is an art of highest order because it deals with molding the attitude and behavior of people at work towards desired goals.

#Management as a Science!

Science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explain a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through the scientific method of observation and verification through testing.

Science is characterized by following main features:

Universally acceptance principles:

Scientific principles represent the basic truth about a particular field of inquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all time & at all places. E.g. – law of gravitation which can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time. Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i.e. one man, one boss. This principle is applicable to all type of organization – business or non-business.

Experimentation & Observation:

Scientific principles are derived from scientific investigation & researching i.e. they are based on logic. E.g. the principle that earth goes around the sun has been scientifically proved.

Management principles are also based on scientific inquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henry Fayol. They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of large no. of managers. E.g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied workforce.

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Cause & Effect Relationship:

Principles of science lay down cause and effect relationship between various variables. E.g. when metals are heated, they are expanded. The cause is heating & result is expansion.

The same is true for management, therefore it also establishes cause and effect relationship. E.g. lack of parity (balance) between authority & responsibility will lead to ineffectiveness. If you know the cause i.e. lack of balance, the effect can be ascertained easily i.e. ineffectiveness. Similarly, if workers are given bonuses, fair wages they will work hard but when not treated in fair and just manner, reduces the productivity of the organization.

Test of Validity & Predictability:

The validity of scientific principles can be tested at any time or any number of times i.e. they stand the test of time. Each time these tests will give the same result. Moreover, future events can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using scientific principles. E.g. H2 & O2 will always give H2O.

Principles of management can also be tested for validity. E.g. principle of unity of command can be tested by comparing two persons – one having the single boss and one having 2 bosses. The performance of 1st person will be better than 2nd.

It cannot be denied that management has a systematic body of knowledge but it is not as exact as that of other physical sciences like biology, physics, and chemistry etc. The main reason for the inexactness of science management is that it deals with human beings and it is very difficult to predict their behavior accurately. Since it is a social process, therefore it falls in the area of social sciences. It is a flexible science & that is why its theories and principles may produce different results at different times and therefore it is a behavioral science. Ernest Dale has called it a Soft Science.

#Management as both Science and Art!

Management is both an art and a science. The above-mentioned points clearly reveal that management combines features of both sciences as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills. A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it.

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Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ’know’ and art teaches to ’do’. E.g. a person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for the manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc.). The old saying that “Manager is Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science. To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit.

#Management as a Process!

As a process, management refers to a series of inter-related functions. It is the process by which management creates, operates and directs purposive organization through systematic, coordinated and co-operated human efforts, according to George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objective by the use of human beings and other resources”.

As a process, management consists of three aspects:

Management is a social process: Since human factor is most important among the other factors, therefore management is concerned with developing the relationship among people. It is the duty of management to make the interaction between people – productive and useful for obtaining organizational goals.

Management is an integrating process: Management undertakes the job of bringing together human physical and financial resources so as to achieve an organizational purpose. Therefore, is an important function to bring harmony between various factors.

Management is a continuous process: It is a never-ending process. It is concerned with constantly identifying the problem and solving them by taking adequate steps. It is an on-going process.

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