Dimensions of Organizational Culture; Includes an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. The major key to dimensions of Organizational Culture; It bases on share attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.
Here explains; What is the major key to dimensions of Organizational Culture?
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviors that “contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization”. According to Needle (2004), organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs, and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organization’s vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, environment, location, beliefs, and habits. Also learn, Dimensions of Organizational Climate!
Explain are Major, Dimensions of Organizational Culture:
The following dimensions below are;
Dominant Culture and Subcultures:
A dominant culture is a set of core values shared by a majority of the organization’s members. When we talk about organizational culture, we generally, mean dominant culture only. The dominant culture is a macro view, that helps guide the day-to-day, the behavior of employees.
A sub-culture is a set of values shared by a small minority of the organization’s members. Sub-cultures arise as a result of problems or experiences that are shared by members of a department or unit of the organization. In the sub-culture, the core values of the dominant culture are retained but modified to reflect the individuals unit’s distinct situation. For example, the marketing department may have its sub-culture; the purchasing department may have its sub-culture depending upon the additional values which are unique to these departments only.
Every organization must have a dominant culture because if there are only numerous sub-cultures, the value of organizational culture as an independent variable will lessen and the concept of Shared Behaviour will no longer be effective. Moreover, if sub-cultures come into conflict with the dominant culture, these will weaken and undermine the organization. But, many successful firms have found that most sub-cultures help the members of a particular group deal with the specific day to day problems with which they are confronting. These members may also support many, if not all, of the core values of the dominant culture.
Strong Culture and Weak Culture:
Organizational culture can be strong or weak.
A strong culture will have the following features:
- Strong values and strong leadership.
- A strong culture is always widely shared. Sharedness refers to the degree to which the organizational members have the same core values.
- A strong culture intensely helps. Intensity refers to the degree of commitment of the organization’s members to the core values.
A strong culture will have a great influence on the behavior of its members because of the high degree of shared-ness and intensity create an internal climate of high behavioral control. A weak culture is just the reverse of a strong culture in every aspect.
The benefits of a strong culture are reduced turnover and a positive employee attitude. A strong culture demonstrates high agreement among members about what the organization stands for. Such unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty and organizational commitment. As a result, turnover is low and employees have a positive attitude towards the organization the opposite will happen if the culture is weak. The limitations of a strong culture are that it will lead to “group think”, collective blind spots and resistance to change and innovation.
Mechanistic and Organic Cultures:
In the mechanistic type of culture, the values of bureaucracy and feudalism are exhibiting. People restrict their careers to their specializations only and organizational work concerns as a system of narrow specialism. It comprises of a traditional form of organization where the authority flows from the top level of the organization to the lower levels. Communication channels are also well defining and prescribe.
The main limitation of this method is that though the people are loyal to their department’s interdepartmental rivalry and animosity are always there. This sort of culture resists any type of change as well as innovations.
Organic culture is just the contrast of mechanistic culture. There are no prescribing communication channels, departmental boundaries, hierarchies of authority or formal rules and regulations. In this form of culture, more stress is on flexibility, consultation, change, and innovation.
There is a free flow of communication both formal and informal. Much emphasis lay on teamwork and task accomplishment. There are no rigid departmental boundaries and the whole staff understands the problems, threats, and opportunities faced by the organization. The whole staff as a team is willing and prepared to take appropriate roles to solve the problems.
Authoritarian and Participative Cultures:
In authoritarian culture, power centralizes in the leader and all the subordinates are expecting to obey the orders strictly. Discipline stress and any disobedience of orders severely punish to set an example for the others. This culture is based on the basic assumption that the leader knows what is good for the organization and he or she always acts in the organizational interests. This type of culture discourages professionalization because professionals consider themselves as equals.
The participative culture is based on the assumption that when all the people working in the organization participate in the decision making, they are likely to more commitment to the decisions rather than to those decisions which are imposing on them by one authoritarian leader. Group problem solving always leads to better decisions because several minds working together are considering better than one mind working alone. If we discuss something new, points and information emerge, which help in the decision making.
National Culture vs. Organisational Culture:
Organizational culture always influences the culture of the land, irrespective of the origin of the company. Or in other words, if there is a clash between the organizational culture and the national culture, the organizational culture generally prevails. For example, any company operating in India, whether Indian or foreign, observe the local culture.
They declare the same holidays, celebrate the same festivals and organize the same functions and cultural activities as reflected by the Indian ethos. But research also indicates that through organizational culture is important in understanding the behavior of people at work, national culture is even more so.
Explain of Key Dimensions of Organizational Culture:
Understanding a set of values that might use to describe an organization’s culture helps us identify, measure, and manage that culture more effectively. One framework that provides insight into the different types of organizational culture is the seven-dimension Organizational Culture Profile (OCP). The OCP is an instrument initially developed by consultants Charles A. O’Reilly III, Jennifer Chatman, and David F. Caldwell to assess person-organization fit. In theory, employees should have the same basic cultural assumptions and values as the company for which they work.
According to the OCP, the following key Dimensions of Organizational Culture are:
Not surprisingly, detail-oriented companies are all about meticulous attention to details. These companies tend to be in customer-oriented industries in which such precision values. For example, Four Seasons hotels are dedicating to providing customers with exactly the service they prefer, and they keep records on each guest’s experiences, preferences, and expectations. Employees working for Four Seasons must have an eye for detail and thrive on keeping meticulous records.
Individuals who want opportunities to invent new products or services should consider working for companies such as W.L. Gore and Associates, maker of GORE-TEX, or 3M. These companies not only encourage innovation but give the employees company time to work on their projects. This approach can result in a wide range of exciting new products developed by engineers or scientists working on their own.
Although some companies value cooperation, others value aggressive competition. Stratasys, a maker of 3D printers, has been willing to make enemies survive and thrive. Stratasys expanded rapidly through growth, takeovers, and mergers to gain a dominant position in the 3D printer industry. Sometimes, Stratasys’ aggressive approach has gotten the company into legal battles—but the company has continued to perform well.
Outcome-oriented businesses are all about results. At RE/MAX, for example, employees are training to sell products, and they are evaluating their sales performance. RE/MAX, short for “Real Estate Maximums,” is an American international real estate company that operates through a franchise system. The company has held the number-one market share in the United States and Canada since 1999.
Employees at a stable corporation know exactly who is in charge, who to report to, and what they are expecting to accomplish. Kraft Foods, for example, is a very stable organization with a strong bureaucracy. Although it is consistent, however, Kraft not knows for innovation or creativity.
If you work for a people-oriented corporation, you can expect the company to care about you. They value fairness and are supportive of individuals’ rights and dignity. Software company SAS is a good example of a people-oriented company that offers employees a wide range of individualized benefits, including on-site childcare. CEO Jim Goodnight’s philosophy is, “Treat employees like they make a difference, and they will.” The result: a loyal and dedicated workforce.
Employees who like to collaborate and cooperate with team members do well in team-oriented companies. Whole Foods, for example, expects its employees to function as members of teams—and to support other members of the team when necessary. This creates strong, solid relationships with working groups.
There is no one “best” type of corporate culture, and many larger corporations exhibit more than one culture. For example, the sales department may have an aggressive culture, whereas marketing is more team-oriented. In general, however, corporations can group into the categories mentioned earlier.